The section between Bonn and the German-Dutch border is known to be the “Lower Rhine“. North of Bonn, the narrow Middle Rhine valley widens into the bay of Cologne which again turns into the Lower Rhine bay. This is where the R. Sieg pours into the Rhine.
Formerly, the Lower Rhine crossed the Lower Rhine Valley in many bends (meander). River training measures forced the Lower Rhine into a fixed river bed, just like the Upper Rhine. However, largely retracted dikes give considerably more room to the river than what is the case along the Upper Rhine.
The Lower Rhine is characterized by much industry and a high density of population. The most important ports in this river section are Cologne, Düsseldorf, Neuss and Duisburg. At Emmerich, Germany’s longest suspension bridges crosses the river which is here more than 700 m wide.
North Rhine-Westphalia: http://www.niederrhein.nrw.de
that the worldwide third largest brown coal deposit is located in the Lower Rhine Valley?
The deposit covers 55 billion tons of brown charcoal corresponding to the energy content of the Irani oil reserves.
Since opencast brown coal mining is only possible above groundwater level, the groundwater level must be lowered by up to 500 m, which causes considerable ecological damage.