The objective is the good status
The objective is the good status of groundwater and surface waters. This comprises lakes and running waters as well as transitional and coastal waters up to the so-called baseline one nautical mile off the coast. By 2015, all these waters are to be clean and in a perfect ecological state. The implementation of this directive introduces a new era in water pollution control. In future, co-operation will be even closer than in the past.
Interdiction of deterioration
The status of waters must not deteriorate (interdiction of deterioration). The EU Member States must take appropriate action to improve water bodies, which are expected to probably not meet the environment targets by 2015. All uses must be taken into account, which directly or indirectly affect the state of water bodies, no matter, whether industry, navigation, the use of hydroelectric power or agriculture is concerned.
A core task in the Rhine river district will be to reduce pollution due to polluting agents and to keep dangerous substances away from waters. Apart from that the character of the river banks and its bottom, the interaction between the river and its alluvial area and free fish migration are seriously affected along the Rhine and its tributaries and need to be improved.
Protection in the entire watershed
One of the greatest opportunities and challenges of the directive is the obligation to manage waters across frontiers: River basins are natural entities, from their source to their outlet into the sea: they do not only comprise the main stream, but also its watershed, that is the entire surface and underground drainage area.
Recovery of costs
Another new aspect is that, in order to reach the environment targets, economic principles, such as recovery of costs for drinking water supply and waste water discharge have for the first time been integrated into an EU-wide directive. The most cost efficient measures targeted at improving the water bodies will be chosen on the basis of cost-benefit analyses.
The implementation follows precise guidelines and schedules. Depending on the risk assessed within the inventory, water bodies are under targeted control. By 2009, management plans must have been drawn up for all European river systems. The measures they fix must at latest be effective in 2012 and environmental targets are to be reached by 2015.
Water protection can only be successful, if the public is informed and involved. Interest groups play a key role, since they represent the entire range of pressures on water bodies, no matter whether economic uses, nature protection or leisure are concerned.